Computer systems analysis of spaceflight induced changes in left ventricular mass

Computer systems analysis of spaceflight induced changes in left ventricular mass Circulatory adaptations resulting in postflight orthostasis have frequently been observed in response to space travel. It has been postulated that a decrement in left ventricular mass (LVM) found after microgravity exposure may be the central component in this cardiovascular deconditioning. However, a physiologic mechanism responsible for these changes in the myocardium has not been determined. In this study, we examined the sequential alterations in echocardiographic measured LVM from preflight to landing day and 3 days into the postflight recovery period. In a previous study in returning astronauts we found a comparative 9.1% reduction in postflight LVM that returned to preflight values by the third day of recovery. This data was further evaluated in a systems analysis approach using a well-established advanced computer model of circulatory functioning. The computer model incorporates the physiologic responses to changes in pressures, flows and hydraulics within the circulatory system as affected by gravitational forces. Myocardial muscle progression to atrophy or hypertrophy in reaction to the circulatory load conditions is also included in the model. The integrative computer analysis suggests that these variations in LVM could be explained by simple fluid shifts known to occur during spaceflight and can reverse within a few days after reentry into earth's gravity. According to model predictions, the reductions in LVM found upon exposure to microgravity are a result of a contraction of the myocardial interstitial fluid space secondary to a loss in the plasma volume. This hypothesis was additionally supported by the published ground-based study in which we followed the alterations in LVM and plasma volume in normal subjects in which hypovolemia was induced by simple dehydration. In the hypovolemic state, plasma volume was reduced in these subjects and was significantly correlated with echocardiographic measurements of LVM. Based on these experimental findings and the performance of the computer systems analysis it appears that reductions in LVM observed after spaceflight may be secondary to fluid exchanges produced by common physiologic mechanisms. Reductions in LVM observed after microgravity exposure have been previously postulated to be a central component of spaceflight-induced cardiovascular deconditioning. However, a recent study has demonstrated a return of astronauts’ LVM to preflight values by the third day after landing through uncertain mechanisms. A systems analysis approach using computer simulation techniques allows for a dissection of the complex physiologic control processes and a more detailed examination of the phenomena. From the simulation studies and computer analysis it appears that microgravity induced reductions in LVM may be explained by considering physiologic fluid exchanges rather than cardiac muscle atrophy. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Computers in Biology and Medicine Elsevier

Computer systems analysis of spaceflight induced changes in left ventricular mass

Loading next page...
 
/lp/elsevier/computer-systems-analysis-of-spaceflight-induced-changes-in-left-N0hUtNCNLd
Publisher
Elsevier
Copyright
Copyright © 2006 Elsevier Ltd
ISSN
0010-4825
D.O.I.
10.1016/j.compbiomed.2006.04.003
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Circulatory adaptations resulting in postflight orthostasis have frequently been observed in response to space travel. It has been postulated that a decrement in left ventricular mass (LVM) found after microgravity exposure may be the central component in this cardiovascular deconditioning. However, a physiologic mechanism responsible for these changes in the myocardium has not been determined. In this study, we examined the sequential alterations in echocardiographic measured LVM from preflight to landing day and 3 days into the postflight recovery period. In a previous study in returning astronauts we found a comparative 9.1% reduction in postflight LVM that returned to preflight values by the third day of recovery. This data was further evaluated in a systems analysis approach using a well-established advanced computer model of circulatory functioning. The computer model incorporates the physiologic responses to changes in pressures, flows and hydraulics within the circulatory system as affected by gravitational forces. Myocardial muscle progression to atrophy or hypertrophy in reaction to the circulatory load conditions is also included in the model. The integrative computer analysis suggests that these variations in LVM could be explained by simple fluid shifts known to occur during spaceflight and can reverse within a few days after reentry into earth's gravity. According to model predictions, the reductions in LVM found upon exposure to microgravity are a result of a contraction of the myocardial interstitial fluid space secondary to a loss in the plasma volume. This hypothesis was additionally supported by the published ground-based study in which we followed the alterations in LVM and plasma volume in normal subjects in which hypovolemia was induced by simple dehydration. In the hypovolemic state, plasma volume was reduced in these subjects and was significantly correlated with echocardiographic measurements of LVM. Based on these experimental findings and the performance of the computer systems analysis it appears that reductions in LVM observed after spaceflight may be secondary to fluid exchanges produced by common physiologic mechanisms. Reductions in LVM observed after microgravity exposure have been previously postulated to be a central component of spaceflight-induced cardiovascular deconditioning. However, a recent study has demonstrated a return of astronauts’ LVM to preflight values by the third day after landing through uncertain mechanisms. A systems analysis approach using computer simulation techniques allows for a dissection of the complex physiologic control processes and a more detailed examination of the phenomena. From the simulation studies and computer analysis it appears that microgravity induced reductions in LVM may be explained by considering physiologic fluid exchanges rather than cardiac muscle atrophy.

Journal

Computers in Biology and MedicineElsevier

Published: Mar 1, 2007

References

  • Mechanism of spaceflight-induced changes in left ventricular mass
    Summers, R.L.; Martin, D.S.; Meck, J.V.; Coleman, T.G.
  • Subnormal norepinephrine release relates to presyncope in astronauts after spaceflight
    Fritsch-Yelle, J.M.; Whtison, P.A.; Bondar, R.L.; Brown, T.E.
  • Effect of short-term microgravity and long-term hindlimb unloading on rat cardiac mass and function
    Ray, C.A.; Vasques, M.; Miller, T.A.; Wilkerson, M.K.; Delp, M.D.
  • Microgravity decreases heart rate and arterial pressure in humans
    Fritsch-Yelle, J.M.; Charles, J.B.; Jones, M.M.; Wood, M.L.
  • Central venous pressure in space
    Buckey, J.C.; Gaffney, F.A.; Lane, L.D.; Levine, B.D.; Watenpaugh, D.E.; Wright, S.J.; Yancy, C.W.; Meyer, D.M.; Blomqvist, C.G.
  • LV systolic performance improves with development of hypertrophy after transverse aortic constriction in mice
    Nakamura, A.; Rokosh, D.G.; Paccanaro, M.; Yee, R.R.; Simpson, P.C.; Grossman, W.; Foster, E.

You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.


DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $49/month

Explore the DeepDyve Library

Search

Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly

Organize

Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.

Access

Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

DeepDyve

Freelancer

DeepDyve

Pro

Price

FREE

$49/month
$360/year

Save searches from
Google Scholar,
PubMed

Create lists to
organize your research

Export lists, citations

Read DeepDyve articles

Abstract access only

Unlimited access to over
18 million full-text articles

Print

20 pages / month

PDF Discount

20% off