1 Introduction</h5> Automotive companies and lubricant original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) are developing and implementing advanced lubricants to enhance fuel efficiency and engine durability and at the same time, maintain or extend lubricant drain intervals. Developing lower-viscosity engine oils with more effective additive packages has proved to be the most successful and cost-effective route. Commercial engine lubricants contain several categories of additives, including anti-wear, friction modifier, viscosity modifier, antioxidant, detergent, dispersant, etc  . Currently, the most common anti-wear additive is zinc dialkyl-dithiophosphate (ZDDP) [1–3] . ZDDP is very effective at wear protection; however, it is known to cause deposits upon thermal decomposition (‘ash’) and to poison emission catalysts [1,2] . Therefore, there is a need to develop alternative, ashless, and more effective anti-wear additives with potentially less impact on catalyst systems. Improved wear protection would allow the use of lower-viscosity engine oils, providing a further improvement in engine mechanical efficiency.</P>Ionic liquids (ILs) have been explored as a new category of lubricants over the past dozen years [4–27] . There are currently two approaches in the literature: • Using ILs as neat lubricants or base stocks [4–19] . This approach would take full advantage of ILs’ high thermal stability,
Tribology International – Elsevier
Published: Mar 1, 2014
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