1 Introduction</h5> The use of alternative fuels, as biodiesel and ethanol, for light duty engines to approach the target of ultra low NO x and PM emissions without fuel economy penalty was widely investigated [1–4] . Growing attention is being converged on renewable fuels to reduce petroleum based fuel consumption. Biodiesel can be considered the primary alternative to diesel fuel due to its properties close to diesel fuel and its miscibility with diesel in any percentage. Although a dominant role in diesel alternative is played by biodiesel produced from animal fats, algae or non-food crop plants, bio-alcohols have become the most interesting solution to replace fossil fuels due to a variety of locally available feedstock [5–7] . Recently it is growing the interest in the butanol as a viable alternative either single or blended with conventional based fuels both to reduce the demand for fossil fuel and to reduce emissions of particulate matter without significantly increasing NO x or significantly lowering the cetane number [8–12] . If compared with other alcohols, butanol has higher energy content, lower water adsorption and corrosive properties, is less volatile, has better solubility with diesel allowing to avoid the additive use, viscosity similar
Renewable Energy – Elsevier
Published: Apr 1, 2014
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