Background: The expression of both the env and gag gene products of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is known to be limited by cis elements in the viral RNA that impede egress from the nucleus and reduce the efficiency of translation. Identifying these elements has proven difficult, as they appear to be disseminated throughout the viral genome. Results Here, we report that selective codon usage appears to account for a substantial fraction of the inefficiency of viral protein synthesis, independent of any effect on improved nuclear export. The codon usage effect is not specific to transcripts of HIV-1 origin. Re-engineering the coding sequence of a model protein (Thy-1) with the most prevalent HIV-1 codons significantly impairs Thy-1 expression, whereas altering the coding sequence of the jellyfish green fluorescent protein gene to conform to the favored codons of highly expressed human proteins results in a substantial increase in expression efficiency. Conclusion Codon-usage effects are a major impediment to the efficient expression of HIV-1 genes. Although mammalian genes do not show as profound a bias as do Escherichia coli genes, other proteins that are poorly expressed in mammalian cells can benefit from codon re-engineering.
Current Biology – Elsevier
Published: Mar 1, 1996
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera