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Coated chitosan pellets containing rutin intended for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease: In vitro characteristics and in vivo evaluation

1 <h5>Introduction</h5> Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) comprises two idiopathic inflammatory diseases of intestinal tract: ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. IBD is a refractory, chronic, recurrent and non-specific inflammatory disorder characterized by the development of intestinal inflammation resulting from the transmural infiltration of neutrophils, macrophages, lymphocytes and mast cells, ultimately giving rise to mucosal disruption and ulceration ( Baumgart and Sandborn, 2007 ). IBD is a serious illness, its exact etiology is poorly understood, and individual genetic background, heredity, environmental signals such as stress, and immunologic influences, may all contribute to this disease process ( Fiocchi, 2002 ). The therapy is symptomatic and targets general inflammatory mechanisms ( Bresci et al., 2002 ). Patients often receive intense (i.e., the dosage schedule with multiple tablets several times a day) and long-term therapy that frequently requires lifelong treatment and is followed by several side effects associated with high dose intake ( Farup et al., 2001 ). Drugs currently used in the treatment of IBD include 5-aminosalicylates as a standard therapy, corticosteroids in more severe inflammation, immunosuppressives and biological agents for patients who fail conventional therapy ( Sands, 2000 ). It is well recognized that free radicals, including reactive oxygen metabolites and http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png International Journal of Pharmaceutics Elsevier
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