Active margin coastlines are distinguished by rock erosion that acts in two different directions: waves erode the coast horizontally or landwards, a process that creates sea cliffs; and rivers and streams erode the landscape vertically via channel incision. The relative rates of each process exert a dominant control on coastline morphology. Using a model of river channel incision and sea-cliff retreat, we explore how terrestrial and marine erosion compete to shape coastal topography, and specifically what conditions encourage the development of coastal knickpoints (i.e., a river or stream channels that end at a raised sea-cliff edge). We then compare results to actual landscapes. Model results and observations show that coastal knickpoint development is strongly dependent on drainage basin area, where knickpoints typically occur in drainage basins smaller than 5×105–6×106m2, as well as channel geometry and sea-cliff retreat rate. In our study area, coastal knickpoints with persistent flow (waterfalls) are uncommon and form only within a small morphological window when 1) drainage basin area is large enough to sustain steady stream discharge, but not large enough to out-compete sea-cliff formation, 2) sea-cliff retreat is rapid, and 3) channel concavity is low so that channel slopes at the coast are high. This particular geomorphic combination can sustain sea-cliff formation even when streams tap into larger drainage basins with greater discharge and more stream power, and provides an initial explanation of why persistent coastal waterfalls are, along many coastlines, relatively rare features.
Geomorphology – Elsevier
Published: Apr 1, 2018
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera