This study aimed to explore the relationships of several indicators of cigarette smoking habits (smoking status, pack-years, age at smoking initiation and smoking cessation) with quantitative computed tomographic (QCT)-derived proximal femur bone measures (trabecular vBMD, integral vBMD and the ratio of cortical to total tissue volume (cvol/ivol)) and with subsequent change in these measures over the next five years. A total of 2673 older adults (55.9% women), aged 66–92 years at baseline from the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility (AGES)-Reykjavik Study, who had two QCT scans of the hip were studied. In multivariable linear regression models, compared to never-smokers, current smokers had lower cvol/ivol at baseline and former-smokers had poorer measures on all outcomes (lower trabecular vBMD, integral vBMD and cvol/ivol), even when adjusted for several potential confounders. Further, among former smokers, those with higher pack-years had worse bone outcomes and those with longer duration since smoking cessation had better bone health at baseline. Analyses of change in bone measures revealed that compared to never-smokers, current smokers had significantly greater loss of trabecular vBMD, integral vBMD, and cvol/ivol. The regression models included adjustment for sex, age, education, and baseline body mass index, creatinine, % weight change from age 50, 25OHD, physical activity level, high-sensitive C-Reactive protein levels, alcohol and coffee consumption, history of diabetes mellitus, arthritis, and respiratory diseases. In conclusion, both current and former smoking showed adverse associations with bone health assessed with QCT. Results suggest that current smoking in particular may aggravate the rate of bone loss at older age and highlight implications for targeting this risk factor in populations that present higher smoking prevalence and vulnerability to bone fragility.
Bone – Elsevier
Published: Mar 1, 2018
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera