Using middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and in vivo microdialysis, we have evaluated the changes in extracellular concentrations of the excitatory amino acids (EAA) glutamate and aspartate during varying periods of MCAO (0, 30, 60 min) in the striatum of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). A positive correlation between occlusion time-dependent elevations in EAAs and the resulting ischemic injury was observed. This is the first demonstration of the temporal profile of EAA efflux during transient focal ischemia in SHRs. Possible sources and mechanisms of ischemia-induced EAA efflux were examined during 60 min of MCAO. Removal of Ca 2+ from the microdialysis infusion media significantly attenuated ischemia-induced increases in both glutamate (from ischemic peak of 4892 ± 1298 to 1144 ± 666% of preischemic values) and aspartate (from 2703 ± 682 to 2090 ± 599% of preischemic values). Similarly, infusion of the voltage dependent Na + channel blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX; 10 μM) significantly attenuated MCAO-induced increases in glutamate (to 1313 ± 648%) and aspartate (to 359 ± 114%). Infusion of the GLT-1 selective nontransportable inhibitor, dihydrokainate (DHK; 1mM) also significantly attenuated the ischemia-induced increases in both EAAs (1285 ± 508 and 1366 ± 741% of the preischemic levels, respectively). These results indicate that during transient focal ischemia the increase in extracellular EAAs originates from both the neuronal pool, via conventional exocytotic release, and glial sources via the reversal of the GLT-1 transporter.
Brain Research Bulletin – Elsevier
Published: Dec 1, 2000
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