Colloids and Surfaces A 538 (2018) 774–780 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Colloids and Surfaces A journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/colsurfa Research Paper Characterisation of acid–base surface free energy components of urea–water solutions a, b a,c b a Alexandros Terzis , Elmar Sauer , Guang Yang , Joachim Groß , Bernhard Weigand Institute of Aerospace Thermodynamics (ITLR), Pfaﬀenwaldring 31, University of Stuttgart, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany Institute of Thermodynamics and Thermal Process Engineering (ITT), Pfaﬀenwaldring 9, University of Stuttgart, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200240 Shanghai, China GR APHICAL A BSTRACT ARTICLE I NFO ABSTRACT Keywords: The objective of this study is to determine the Lifshitz–van der Waals/Acid–Base (LW/AB) surface energy Urea–water-solutions components of urea–water-solutions (UWS) for diﬀerent urea mass fractions. The surface energy parameters are Contact angle measurements evaluated by ring tensiometry and contact angle measurements of sessile drops placed onto pre-determined solid Acid–base interfacial interactions substrates. Therefore, the energetic characteristics of UWS are evaluated in relation to probe liquids. The results Wetting indicate that aqueous solutions of urea become less polar with increasing urea mass fraction while their overall surface tension is also increased. This is attributed to a signiﬁcant grow of the
Geoderma – Elsevier
Published: Feb 15, 2019
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