Cellular Distribution and Kinetic Properties of High-Affinity Glutamate Transporters

Cellular Distribution and Kinetic Properties of High-Affinity Glutamate Transporters L-glutamic acid is a key chemical transmitter of excitatory signals in the nervous system. The termination of glutamatergic transmission occurs via uptake of glutamate by a family of high-affinity glutamate transporters that utilize the Na + /K + electrochemical gradient as a driving force. The stoichiometry of a single translocation cycle is still debatable, although all proposed models stipulate an inward movement of a net positive charge. This electrogenic mechanism is capable of translocating the neurotransmitter against its several thousandfold concentration gradient, therefore, keeping the resting glutamate concentration below the treshold levels. The five cloned transporters (GLAST/EAAT1, GLT1/EAAT2, EAAC1/EAAT3, EAAT4, and EAAT5) exhibit distinct distribution patterns and kinetic properties in different brain regions, cell types, and reconstitution systems. Moreover, distinct pharmacological profiles were revealed among the species homologues. GLAST and GLT1, the predominant glutamate transporters in the brain, are coexpressed in astroglial processess, whereas neuronal carriers are mainly located in the dendrosomatic compartment. Some of these carrier proteins may possess signal transducing properties, distinct from their transporter activity. Some experimental conditions and several naturally occurring and synthetic compounds are capable of regulating the expression of glutamate transporters. However, selective pharmacological tools interfering with the individual glutamate carriers have yet to be developed. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Brain Research Bulletin Elsevier

Cellular Distribution and Kinetic Properties of High-Affinity Glutamate Transporters

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Publisher
Elsevier
Copyright
Copyright © 1998 Elsevier Science Inc.
ISSN
0361-9230
eISSN
1873-2747
D.O.I.
10.1016/S0361-9230(97)00417-6
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

L-glutamic acid is a key chemical transmitter of excitatory signals in the nervous system. The termination of glutamatergic transmission occurs via uptake of glutamate by a family of high-affinity glutamate transporters that utilize the Na + /K + electrochemical gradient as a driving force. The stoichiometry of a single translocation cycle is still debatable, although all proposed models stipulate an inward movement of a net positive charge. This electrogenic mechanism is capable of translocating the neurotransmitter against its several thousandfold concentration gradient, therefore, keeping the resting glutamate concentration below the treshold levels. The five cloned transporters (GLAST/EAAT1, GLT1/EAAT2, EAAC1/EAAT3, EAAT4, and EAAT5) exhibit distinct distribution patterns and kinetic properties in different brain regions, cell types, and reconstitution systems. Moreover, distinct pharmacological profiles were revealed among the species homologues. GLAST and GLT1, the predominant glutamate transporters in the brain, are coexpressed in astroglial processess, whereas neuronal carriers are mainly located in the dendrosomatic compartment. Some of these carrier proteins may possess signal transducing properties, distinct from their transporter activity. Some experimental conditions and several naturally occurring and synthetic compounds are capable of regulating the expression of glutamate transporters. However, selective pharmacological tools interfering with the individual glutamate carriers have yet to be developed.

Journal

Brain Research BulletinElsevier

Published: Feb 1, 1998

References

  • Coincidence of L-glutamate/L-aspartate transporter (GLAST) and glutamine synthetase (GS) immunoreactions in retinal glia
    Derouiche, A; Rauen, T
  • Characterization of L-glutamate uptake into and release from astrocytes and neurons cultured from different brain regions
    Drejer, J; Larsson, O.M; Schousboe, A
  • Regional heterogeneity of L-glutamate and L-aspartate high-affinity systems in the rat CNS
    Fletcher, E.J; Johnston, G.A
  • Immunocytochemical analysis of bipolar cells in the macaque monkey retina
    Grunert, U; Martin, P.R; Wassle, H
  • Expression of glutamate transporters in cultured glial cells
    Kondo, K; Hashimoto, H; Kitanaka, J; Sawada, M; Suzumura, A; Marunouchi, T; Baba, A
  • Differential expression of two glial glutamate transporters in the rat brain
    Lehre, K.P; Levy, L.M; Ottersen, O.P; Storm-Mathisen, J; Danbolt, N.C
  • Molecular cloning of two glutamate transporter subtypes from mouse brain
    Mukainaka, Y; Tanaka, K; Hagiwara, T; Wada, K
  • Differences in glutamate uptake in astrocytes cultured from different brain regions
    Schousboe, A; Divac, I
  • Uptake and metabolism of glutamate in astrocytes cultured from dissociated mouse brain hemispheres
    Schousboe, A; Senneby, G; Hertz, L
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    Torp, R; Danbolt, N.C; Babaie, E; Bjørås, M; Seeberg, E; Storm-Mathisen, J; Ottersen, O.P
  • Glucocorticoids inhibit glucose transport and glutamate uptake in hippocampal astrocytes
    Virgin, C.E; Ha, T.P; Packan, D.R; Tombaugh, G.C; Yang, S.H; Horner, H.C; Sapolsky, R.M

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