1 Introduction</h5> Globally, organic crop production is often dependent on imported livestock manure that is acquired also from conventional farms ( Knudsen et al., 2011a; Oelofse et al., 2011; Duval, 2009 ). The dependency on conventional livestock manure is considered problematic by parts of the organic sector and in Denmark the organic farming movement recently decided to phase out the use of conventional livestock manure in organic agriculture by 2021 ( Jørgensen and Kristensen, 2010; Oelofse et al., 2013 ). Prohibiting conventional livestock manure in organic agriculture requires adaptations in the organic farming systems with regard to nutrient management; in particular in terms of enhancing biological nitrogen (N) fixation and improved N use efficiency. With the rapid expansion of the global organic area during the last decade ( Willer and Kilcher, 2012 ), alternative solutions to secure N supply in organic crop plant production systems need to be explored, such as the use of appropriate crop rotations and green manure (such as e.g. grass-clover) (maybe combined with biogas production). Green manure crops are primarily nitrogen fixing crops grown for a specific period, to add nutrient and soil organic matter to the crop rotation. They are typically harvested when
Journal of Cleaner Production – Elsevier
Published: Feb 1, 2014
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