Nomenclature</h5> APEP Advanced Power and Energy Program</P>CAISO California Independent System Operator</P>CEC California Energy Commission</P>FERC Federal Energy Regulatory Commission</P>GW gigawatts</P>HiGRID Holistic Grid Resource Integration and Deployment model</P>LF load following plant</P>NHA National Hydropower Association</P>PK peaker plant</P>SR spinning reserve</P>USGS United States Geological Survey</P>∀ ̇ time-resolved stream flow rate</P>∀ cap total system hydro reservoir capacity</P>E Hy total electrical generation from hydro for California</P>P Hy time-resolved hydro generation signal</P>P HyMax maximum installed hydroelectric capacity</P>R hydroelectric fleet ramp rate</P>1 Introduction</h5> Adjustments to the generation mixture in California will be required to meet the 33% renewable portfolio standard goal by 2020  . Renewable energy sources benefit from having little to no operational emissions unlike typical fossil fuel based sources, but there are concerns over the ability to effectively integrate large amounts of intermittent power generation onto the electrical grid  . While hydropower, geothermal, biomass and biogas provide more constant and even controllable power, renewable sources such as wind or solar power are intermittent due to the diurnal and seasonal behavior of wind and solar radiation. However, dispatchable technologies and those that store energy can be used to buffer intermittencies. Dispatchable resources and grid energy storage can buffer intermittencies and help to maintain the
Applied Energy – Elsevier
Published: Dec 1, 2013
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