Blood flow restriction pressure recommendations: The hormesis hypothesis

Blood flow restriction pressure recommendations: The hormesis hypothesis Introduction</h5> Blood flow restriction (BFR) alone or in combination with low-intensity exercise results in favorable effects on skeletal muscle form and function [1] and preliminary evidence suggests it may also promote bone formation [2,3] . These positive effects on skeletal muscle have been observed across a wide variety of populations (e.g. athletes, untrained, elderly, patients in rehabilitation), and thus, BFR in combination with low-intensity exercise represents a powerful tool in promoting an increase in skeletal muscle growth and strength. The mechanisms behind these effects are thought to be dependent upon how the stimulus is applied (i.e. BFR alone vs. BFR + Aerobic Exercise vs. BFR + Resistance Exercise); however, a foundational mechanism may be the acute increase in muscle cell swelling following the application of BFR alone [4] or in combination with aerobic [5] or resistance exercise [6] . Further proposed mechanisms behind the effects of low load resistance exercise in combination with BFR include increased fiber type recruitment from metabolic accumulation [7] , decreased myostatin [8] , decreased atrogenes [9] , and the proliferation of satellite cells [10] .</P>BFR is a stimulus commonly applied with specialized pressure cuffs placed at the top of a limb which are http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Medical Hypotheses Elsevier

Blood flow restriction pressure recommendations: The hormesis hypothesis

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Publisher
Elsevier
Copyright
Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd
ISSN
0306-9877
eISSN
1532-2777
D.O.I.
10.1016/j.mehy.2014.02.023
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Introduction</h5> Blood flow restriction (BFR) alone or in combination with low-intensity exercise results in favorable effects on skeletal muscle form and function [1] and preliminary evidence suggests it may also promote bone formation [2,3] . These positive effects on skeletal muscle have been observed across a wide variety of populations (e.g. athletes, untrained, elderly, patients in rehabilitation), and thus, BFR in combination with low-intensity exercise represents a powerful tool in promoting an increase in skeletal muscle growth and strength. The mechanisms behind these effects are thought to be dependent upon how the stimulus is applied (i.e. BFR alone vs. BFR + Aerobic Exercise vs. BFR + Resistance Exercise); however, a foundational mechanism may be the acute increase in muscle cell swelling following the application of BFR alone [4] or in combination with aerobic [5] or resistance exercise [6] . Further proposed mechanisms behind the effects of low load resistance exercise in combination with BFR include increased fiber type recruitment from metabolic accumulation [7] , decreased myostatin [8] , decreased atrogenes [9] , and the proliferation of satellite cells [10] .</P>BFR is a stimulus commonly applied with specialized pressure cuffs placed at the top of a limb which are

Journal

Medical HypothesesElsevier

Published: May 1, 2014

References

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