Bisphenol A (BPA) is an important industrial raw material that is widely applied in daily products. BPA is also an endocrine-disrupting chemical that may adversely affect humans. This review thoroughly collected data on BPA concentration in human urine and determined main influencing factors. The average BPA intake of humans across six continents or the average value worldwide was calculated based on a simple model. Results showed that the average BPA intake was ranked from high to low as follows: Oceania, Asia, Europe, and North America in the child population and Oceania, Europe, Asia, and North America in the adult population. The annual trend of the average BPA intake was similar between the adult and child populations. The BPA intake in the two populations evidently decreased from 2000 to 2008 and then slightly increased from 2008 to 2011. The BPA intake in the child population started to decrease again from 2011, whereas the corresponding intake in the adult population continued to increase. The distinct difference likely contributed to the wide prohibition of the use of BPA in food-related products for children in many countries since 2009; the bans effectively decreased the total BPA exposure in the child population.
Engineering Failure Analysis – Elsevier
Published: Sep 1, 2018
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