Bisphenol A and human chronic diseases: Current evidences, possible mechanisms, and future perspectives

Bisphenol A and human chronic diseases: Current evidences, possible mechanisms, and future... 1 Introduction</h5> Bisphenol-A (BPA) is one of the highest volume chemicals produced worldwide. Current estimation indicates that over 6 billion pounds were produced annually ( Vandenberg et al., 2009 ) in the manufacturing of polymers (such as polycarbonate, epoxy resins, polysulfone, or polyacrylate), polyvinyl chloride plastics and flame retardant tetrabromobisphenol-A ( Geens et al., 2012a ). Polycarbonate is used in materials of foodstuffs (such as baby bottles, reusable plastic bottles, plates, goblets, cups, microwave ovenware, and storage containers) and the epoxy resins are used for internal coating of food and beverage cans ( Geens et al., 2011 ). Currently, the applications of polycarbonate and epoxy resins were extended into other uses of life such as sunglasses, thermal papers, building materials, CD-ROM, medical devices, and dental materials ( Geens et al., 2012a ). Thus, over 100 t of BPA are released into the atmosphere every year of production ( Vandenberg et al., 2009 ).</P>1.1 Source of exposure in different life stages</h5> Aquatic environment, air and soil can be a source of human BPA exposure, but food is believed to be the major source of exposure ( Kang et al., 2006 ). Indeed, under various conditions, BPA can leach out http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Environment International Elsevier

Bisphenol A and human chronic diseases: Current evidences, possible mechanisms, and future perspectives

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Publisher
Elsevier
Copyright
Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd
ISSN
0160-4120
D.O.I.
10.1016/j.envint.2013.12.007
Publisher site
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Abstract

1 Introduction</h5> Bisphenol-A (BPA) is one of the highest volume chemicals produced worldwide. Current estimation indicates that over 6 billion pounds were produced annually ( Vandenberg et al., 2009 ) in the manufacturing of polymers (such as polycarbonate, epoxy resins, polysulfone, or polyacrylate), polyvinyl chloride plastics and flame retardant tetrabromobisphenol-A ( Geens et al., 2012a ). Polycarbonate is used in materials of foodstuffs (such as baby bottles, reusable plastic bottles, plates, goblets, cups, microwave ovenware, and storage containers) and the epoxy resins are used for internal coating of food and beverage cans ( Geens et al., 2011 ). Currently, the applications of polycarbonate and epoxy resins were extended into other uses of life such as sunglasses, thermal papers, building materials, CD-ROM, medical devices, and dental materials ( Geens et al., 2012a ). Thus, over 100 t of BPA are released into the atmosphere every year of production ( Vandenberg et al., 2009 ).</P>1.1 Source of exposure in different life stages</h5> Aquatic environment, air and soil can be a source of human BPA exposure, but food is believed to be the major source of exposure ( Kang et al., 2006 ). Indeed, under various conditions, BPA can leach out

Journal

Environment InternationalElsevier

Published: Mar 1, 2014

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