The authors have listed 85 species of macrophytes that have probably been introduced to the Mediterranean. Among them, nine species can be considered as invasive, i.e., playing a conspicuous role in the recipient ecosystems, taking the place of keystone species and/or being economically harmful: Acrothamnion preissii , Asparagopsis armata , Lophocladia lallemandii , Womersleyella setacea (Rhodophyta), Sargassum muticum , Stypopodium schimperi (Fucophyceae), Caulerpa racemosa , Caulerpa taxifolia and Halophila stipulacea (Plantae). These data fit well the Williamson and Fitter's “tens rule”, which states that, on average, 1 out of 10 introduced species becomes invasive. Though some features (e.g. life traits, geographical origin) can increase the likelihood of a successful invasion, the success of invaders is far from being predictable. Since the beginning of the 20th century, the number of introduced species to the Mediterranean has nearly doubled every 20 years. Should these kinetics continue, and according to the tens rule, it can be expected that 5–10 newly introduced macrophytes shall become invasive in the next 20 years.
Marine Pollution Bulletin – Elsevier
Published: Jan 1, 2002
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