1 Introduction</h5> Biodiesel has drawn more and more attention in recent years because of rapidly increasing crude oil prices, limited fossil fuels, and intensified environment pollution [1,2] . So it is increasingly necessary to develop alternative clean and renewable energy sources. Biodiesel, obtained from renewable biomass feedstock such as vegetable oil, can be used in diesel engines or blended at various proportions with petroleum diesel as fuel  . Several methods for biodiesel production have been developed so far, e.g., direct use and blending of raw oil  , micro-emulsification  , pyrolysis  . A particularly promising method of producing biodiesel is transesterification route  . Transesterification is the chemical reaction that involves triglycerides and alcohol in the presence of a catalyst to form esters and glycerol. Most of heterogeneous catalysts are often used in transesterification reaction, because catalysts can be easily removed from the reaction mixture by filtration and recycled in the new process. Therefore, the loss of catalyst can be avoided  . Several different heterogeneous basic catalysts have been proposed for the biodiesel synthesis by transesterification reaction, such as alumina/silica supported K 2 CO 3 catalysts  , KOH/Al 2 O 3 and KOH/NaY
Applied Energy – Elsevier
Published: Aug 1, 2013
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