Diclofenac (DCF) is a widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory pharmaceutical which is detected in the environment at concentrations which can pose a threat to living organisms. In this study, biodegradation of DCF was assessed using the bacterial strain Labrys portucalensis F11. Biotransformation of 70% of DCF (1.7–34 μM), supplied as the sole carbon source, was achieved in 30 days. Complete degradation was reached via co-metabolism with acetate, over a period of 6 days for 1.7 µM and 25 days for 34 μM of DCF. The detection and identification of biodegradation intermediates was performed by UPLC-QTOF/MS/MS. The chemical structure of 12 metabolites is proposed. DCF degradation by strain F11 proceeds mainly by hydroxylation reactions; the formation of benzoquinone imine species seems to be a central step in the degradation pathway. Moreover, this is the first report that identified conjugated metabolites, resulting from sulfation reactions of DCF by bacteria. Stoichiometric liberation of chlorine and no detection of metabolites at the end of the experiments are strong indications of complete degradation of DCF by strain F11. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report that points to complete degradation of DCF by a single bacterial strain isolated from the environment.
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety – Elsevier
Published: May 15, 2018
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera