Monitoring of potentially toxic elements in agricultural soil represents the first measure of caution regarding food safety, while research into element bioavailability should be a step forward in understanding the element transportation chain. This study was conducted in the grapevine growing area (“Oplenac Wine Route”) for investigating element bioavailability in the soil–grapevine system accompanied by an assessment of the ecological implications and human health risk. Single extraction procedures (CH3COOH, Na2EDTA, CaCl2, NH4NO3 and deionised H2O) and digestion were performed to estimate the bioavailability of 22 elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sr, V and Zn) from the topsoil (0–30 cm) and subsoil (30–60 cm) to the grapevine parts (leaf, skin, pulp and seed) and wine. The extractants were effective comparing to the pseudo-total concentrations in following order Na2EDTA ˃ CH3COOH ˃ NH4NO3 ˃ CaCl2, H2O 2 h and 16 h. The most suitable extractants for assessing the bioavailability of the elements from the soil to the grapevine parts were CaCl2, NH4NO3 and Na2EDTA, but deionised H2O could be suitable, as well. The results showed that Ba was the most bioavailable element in the soil–grapevine system. Contamination factor implied a moderate contamination (1 < CF < 3) of the soil. The concentrations of Cr, Ni and Cd in the soil were above the maximum allowed concentrations. According to the biological accumulation coefficient (BAC), the grape seeds and grapevine leaves mostly accumulated Cu and Zn from the soil, respectively. Based on ratio factor (RF > 1), the influence of atmospheric deposition on the aerial grapevine parts (leaves and grape skin) was observed. Nevertheless, low adverse health risk effects (HI < 1 and R ≤ 1 × 10−6) were estimated for farmers and grape and wine consumers.
Science of the Total Environment – Elsevier
Published: Jun 1, 2018
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