Dietary intake of metal(loid)s can seriously affect human health, but the levels, the bioaccumulation, sources and related health risks of As, Cd, Cr and Pb in cultivated lilies, particularly for Lilium davidii var. unicolor, remain unresolved. We collected 35 lily samples aged 1–6 years from farmlands of two types of soil (heilu soils and loessal soils) in Qilihe district in 2016 and analysed the concentrations of As, Cd, Cr and Pb in bulbs, the soil-bulb bioaccumulation and the potential sources of these elements in bulbs. Non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks by consuming lilies were also assessed. Concentrations of four elements decreased in the order of Cr > Pb > Cd > As, and soil-bulb BCFs in the order of BCFCd > BCFCr > BCFPb > BCFAs. The Cd concentration of bulbs of lilies which grew in heilu soils was statistically higher than that of bulbs of lilies which grew in loessal soils, and the Cd concentration of bulbs of lilies aged 1–3 years was statistically higher than that of bulbs of lilies aged 4–6 years. Levels and soil-bulb BCFs of Cr and Pb of two-bulbed lilies were statistically higher than those of one-bulbed lilies. Farmyard manure may be a primary source of Cd in soil. There existed overall potential non-carcinogenic effects by exposure to the combination of four elements. Dietary intake of Cr posed carcinogenic risks to both adults and children. Non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks were higher for adults than children. Concluding, the edible parts of lily were significantly polluted by Cr and Pb but not by As and Cd. The number of bulbs significantly impacted concentrations and soil-bulb BCFs of Cr and Pb, but the reason for which needs further studies. Non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks caused by lily consumption should not be neglected.
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety – Elsevier
Published: Apr 30, 2018
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 12 million articles from more than
10,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Read as many articles as you need. Full articles with original layout, charts and figures. Read online, from anywhere.
Keep up with your field with Personalized Recommendations and Follow Journals to get automatic updates.
It’s easy to organize your research with our built-in tools.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera