The developed method enables the quantification of estrogens in sewage samples down to 1 ng/l and in river water down to 0.5 ng/l. Mean recoveries of the analytes in ground water after SPE extraction, clean-up and derivatization generally exceeded 75%. The determined R.S.D. varied from 0 to 14% at a spiking level of 0.05 μg/l. Even in the raw influent and the final effluent from municipal STPs the mean recoveries of estrogens were mostly above 70%. Using this method the behavior and occurrence of natural estrogens and synthetic contraceptives in municipal sewage treatment plants (STP) were investigated in German and Canadian facilities. In the sewage of a German municipal STP close to Frankfurt/Main 17β-estradiol and estrone were determined, with mean concentrations of 0.015 μg/l and 0.027 μg/l, respectively. In two investigated municipal STPs, 17β-estradiol and 16α-hydroxyestrone were eliminated with a higher efficiency than 17α-ethinylestradiol and estrone. In Canadian and German STP discharges estrone, 17β-estradiol, 17α-ethinylestradiol and 16α-hydroxyestrone were frequently detected within the lower ng/l-range. A maximum concentration was found for estrone with 70 ng/l. In 15 investigated German rivers and streams only estrone was present with a maximum concentration of 1.6 ng/l.
Science of the Total Environment – Elsevier
Published: Jan 12, 1999
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera