1 Introduction</h5> Drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs) are inevitable and safe by-products found in drinking water treatment plants ( Babatunde and Zhao, 2007 ; Ippolito et al., 2011 ). WTRs are primarily composed of amorphous Fe/Al hydroxides because the coagulants of these elements are often used to remove suspended solids and humic substances from raw water ( Makris et al., 2004 ). Studies have demonstrated that WTRs have large surface areas and are potentially effective adsorbents of many contaminants, such as phosphorus (P) ( Makris et al., 2005 ; Razalia et al., 2007 ), metals ( Makris et al., 2006a ; Zhou and Haynes, 2011 ), perchloric acid ( Makris et al., 2006b ) and hydrogen sulfide ( Wang and Pei, 2012 ). Among them, the reuse of WTRs as P adsorption materials is a focus of many investigations ( Ippolito et al., 2011 ).</P>WTRs have strong P adsorption capabilities under various conditions ( Agyin-Birikorang and O'Connor, 2007 ; Oliver et al., 2011 ; Wang et al., 2012b ). The main causes of this high capability are the Fe and Al in WTRs ( Babatunde and Zhao, 2009 ; Wang et al., 2011a ). In addition, ligand exchange
Journal of Environmental Management – Elsevier
Published: Jun 15, 2013
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