Nomenclature</h5> Abbreviations</h5> ISO independent system operator</P>RTO regional transmission operator</P>FERC Federal Energy Regulatory Commission</P>RTS reliability test system</P>CAES compressed air energy storage</P>UC unit commitment</P>ED economic dispatch</P>LMP locational marginal price</P>MCP market clearing price of ancillary services</P>AS ancillary services</P>Reg + regulation-up service</P>Reg − regulation down service</P>SR spinning reserve</P>NSR non-spinning reserve</P>CPS control performance standard</P>AGC automatic generation control</P>Cy$ cycling cost</P>HRD heat rate degradation</P>VOM variable operation and maintenance</P>MA margin adder</P>HS hot start</P>Δ additional cost</P>CAISO California ISO</P>CT combustion turbine</P>WP wind penetration</P>MCS Monte Carlo simulation</P>Indices</h5> t time period</P>i bus/generator number</P>Decision variables</h5> p i ( t ) power generation from unit i in MW at time period t </P>p i sr ( t ) spinning reserve from unit i in MW at time period t </P>p i nsr ( t ) non-spinning reserve from unit i in MW at time period t </P>p i reg + ( t ) regulation-up from unit i in MW at time period t </P>p i reg - ( t ) regulation-down from unit i in MW at time period t </P>X i ( t ) start-up indicator at hour t for unit i </P>Y i ( t ) shut-down indicator at hour t for unit i </P>X i 0 ( t )
Applied Energy – Elsevier
Published: Feb 1, 2015
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