“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”

Instant Access to Thousands of Journals for just $40/month

Try 2 weeks free now

Are menstruating women protected from heart disease because of, or in spite of, estrogen? Relevance to the iron hypothesis

Editorial Jerome L. Sullivan, MD, PhD Winter Park, Fla Healthy premenopausal women are largely protected from ischemic heart disease, but, remarkably, so are women with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) (Figure 1).1,2 Thirty-year-old men with heterozygous FH have an excess of cardiovascular events in comparison with unaffected men. In sharp contrast, their 30-year-old sisters who have heterozygous FH have disease rates that are not readily distinguishable from those of unaffected women (Figure 2). In Figure 2, women younger than 40 years with FH had slightly lower incidences than unaffected women. After menopausal age, women with FH demonstrate susceptibility to heart disease, with an incidence increase that quickly surpasses that of their unaffected male relatives. Other than a delayed onset of clinical disease, women who have heterozygous FH have a life-long lipid phenotype identical to or, perhaps, slightly more severe than that of men with heterozygous FH. According to the estrogen hypothesis, this impressive protection is lost because healthy women, and women with FH, become estrogen-deficient after menopause. It follows that replacement of the missing protective element with hormone-replacement therapy (HRT) should eliminate susceptibility to cardiovascular disease. However, HRT did not reduce cardiovascular events or atherosclerosis in randomized trials. The http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png American Heart Journal Elsevier
Loading next page...

You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.

DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy unlimited access and
personalized recommendations from
over 12 million articles from more than
10,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $40/month

Try 2 weeks free now

Explore the DeepDyve Library

How DeepDyve Works

Spend time researching, not time worrying you’re buying articles that might not be useful.

Unlimited reading

Read as many articles as you need. Full articles with original layout, charts and figures. Read online, from anywhere.

Stay up to date

Keep up with your field with Personalized Recommendations and Follow Journals to get automatic updates.

Organize your research

It’s easy to organize your research with our built-in tools.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from Springer, Elsevier, Nature, IEEE, Wiley-Blackwell and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

Simple and Affordable Pricing

14-day free trial. Cancel anytime, with a 30-day money-back guarantee.

Monthly Plan

  • Read unlimited articles
  • Personalized recommendations
  • Print 20 pages per month
  • 20% off on PDF purchases
  • Organize your research
  • Get updates on your journals and topic searches


Best Deal — 25% off

Annual Plan

  • All the features of the Professional Plan, but for 25% off!
  • For the normal price of 10 articles elsewhere, you get one full year of unlimited access to articles.

billed annually