1764 EDITORIALS GASTROENTEROLOGY Vol. 111, No. 6 See article on page 1603. Apolipoprotein E4 gives you a double dose of nuts: it makes you mad and also ``stoned'' . . . --Letter of E. Ros to M.C. Carey April 16, 1966 polipoprotein (apo) E is a ligand for the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) family of receptors and plays a pivotal role in cholesterol metabolism. Although synthesized principally in the liver, apo E can be produced by many extrahepatic cells including macrophages and glial cells of the central nervous system. Three common isoforms (E2, E3, and E4) accounting for 99% of the variation within the population have been identified. The differences between the isoforms result from interchanges of cysteine and arginine at positions 112 and 158 of the molecule, which contains a total of 299 amino acids. In apo E2, cysteine occurs at both positions; in apo E4, arginine is located at both positions; and in apo E3, cysteine occupies position 112 and arginine position 158. A single gene, located on human chromosome 19 in a cluster with apolipoprotein CI and CII genes, encodes the isoforms. Because the isoforms are expressed codominantly, six possible phenotypes are generated: E2/2, E3/ 3,
Gastroenterology – Elsevier
Published: Dec 1, 1996
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