Apolipoprotein E and atherosclerosis: insight from animal and human studies

Apolipoprotein E and atherosclerosis: insight from animal and human studies Major advances have been made in our understanding of the role of apolipoprotein E (apoE) in the onset and development of atherosclerosis. Increasing evidence from both animal and human studies suggests that apoE is able to protect against atherosclerosis by: a) promoting efficient uptake of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins from the circulation; b) maintaining normal macrophage lipid homeostasis; c) playing a role in cellular cholesterol efflux and reverse cholesterol transport; d) acting as an antioxidant; e) inhibiting platelet aggregation; and f) modulating immune function. In humans, apoE is polymorphic, and this genetic variation has a strong effect on its anti-atherogenic characteristics. Thus, compared to the ϵ3 allele, the ϵ4 allele promotes atherosclerosis, whereas the ϵ2 allele is either pro- or anti-atherogenic, depending on the influence of both environmental and genetic factors. ApoE and its gene are prime targets for therapeutic intervention aimed at preventing or treating atherosclerotic vascular disease. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Clinica Chimica Acta Elsevier

Apolipoprotein E and atherosclerosis: insight from animal and human studies

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Publisher
Elsevier
Copyright
Copyright © 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.
ISSN
0009-8981
eISSN
1873-3492
D.O.I.
10.1016/S0009-8981(99)00097-2
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Major advances have been made in our understanding of the role of apolipoprotein E (apoE) in the onset and development of atherosclerosis. Increasing evidence from both animal and human studies suggests that apoE is able to protect against atherosclerosis by: a) promoting efficient uptake of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins from the circulation; b) maintaining normal macrophage lipid homeostasis; c) playing a role in cellular cholesterol efflux and reverse cholesterol transport; d) acting as an antioxidant; e) inhibiting platelet aggregation; and f) modulating immune function. In humans, apoE is polymorphic, and this genetic variation has a strong effect on its anti-atherogenic characteristics. Thus, compared to the ϵ3 allele, the ϵ4 allele promotes atherosclerosis, whereas the ϵ2 allele is either pro- or anti-atherogenic, depending on the influence of both environmental and genetic factors. ApoE and its gene are prime targets for therapeutic intervention aimed at preventing or treating atherosclerotic vascular disease.

Journal

Clinica Chimica ActaElsevier

Published: Aug 1, 1999

References

  • The emergence of mouse models of atherosclerosis and their relevance to clinical research
    Smith, J.D.; Breslow, J.L.
  • Is the development of adenoma and carcinoma in proximal colon related to apolipoprotein E phenotype?
    Kervinen, K.; Södervik, H.; Mäkelä, J.
  • The role of apolipoprotein E genetic variants in lipoprotein disorders
    Rall, S.C.; Mahley, R.W.
  • Glomerular lipid deposition and proteinuria in a patient with familial dysbetalipoproteinaemia
    Balson, K.R.; Niall, J.F.; Best, J.D.
  • Apolipoprotein E polymorphism in a Danish population compared to findings in 45 other study populations around the world
    Gerdes, L.U.; Klausen, I.C.; Sihm, I.; Færgeman, O.
  • An ecological study of association between coronary heart disease mortality rates in men and the relative frequencies of common allelic variations in the gene coding for apolipoprotein E
    Stengârd, J.H.; Weiss, K.M.; Sing, C.F.
  • Interaction between low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and apolipoprotein E (apoE) alleles contributes to normal variation in lipid level
    Pedersen, J.C.; Berg, K.
  • Severe learning deficits in apolipoprotein E knockout mice in a water maze task
    Oitzl, M.S.; Mulder, M.; Lucassen, P.J.; Havekes, L.M.; Grootendorst, J.; DeKloet, E.R.
  • Apolipoprotein E: A potent inhibitor of endothelial and tumor cell proliferation
    Vogel, T.; Guo, N.; Guy, R.
  • Apolipoprotein E4: Another risk factor for cholesterol gallstone formation?
    Van Erpecum, K.J.; Carey, M.C.

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