A number of in vivo and in vitro models have been developed to study retinal ischaemia, but all have disadvantages. Pressure-induced ocular ischaemia to mammals is one model frequently used to investigate the mechanisms and therapy for retinal ischaemia. It has the advantage that the animals used are inevitably adults and the insult is delivered to the retina in the in situ state ( Popp, 1955 ; Foulds and Johnson, 1974 ; Brunette et al., 1986 ; Takahashi et al., 1992 ; Buchi, 1992 ; Szabo et al., 1993 ; Lam et al., 1994 ). Different species are affected to different degrees by increasing IOP, mainly owing to their retinal circulation. The rat, like the human, is holangic, as it has choroidal and retinal circulation (cf. the rabbit, which is merangic, with choroidal circulation only). Within any one species the duration and magnitude of the raised IOP willd etermine the degree of insult to the retina. Normally the IOP is raised just above the systolic blood pressure. When this is done for 60–90 min in the rabbit, a slight morphological damage to the retina at specific reperfusion times is detectable ( Marmor and Dalal, 1993 ; Osborne et
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