Ion channels are transmembrane proteins that allow passive flow of ions inside and/or outside of cells or cell organelles. Except mutations lead to nonfunctional protein production or abolished receptor entrance on the membrane surface an altered channel may have two principal conditions that can be corrected. The channel may conduct fewer ions through (loss-of-function mutations) or too many ions (gain-of-function mutations) compared to a normal channel. Toxins from animal venoms are specialised molecules that are generally oriented toward interactions with ion channels. This is a result of long coevolution between predators and their prey. On the molecular level, toxins activate or inhibit ion channels, so they are ideal molecules for restoring conductance in mutated channels. Another aspect of this long coevolution is that a broad variety of toxins have been fine tuned to recognize the channels of different species, keeping many amino acids substitution among sequences. Many peptide ligands with high selectivity to specific receptor subtypes have been isolated from animal venoms, some of which are absolutely non-toxic to humans and mammalians. It is expected that molecules that are selective to each known receptor can be found in animal venoms, but the pool of toxins currently does not override all receptors described as being involved in channelopathies. Modern investigating methods have enhanced the search process for selective ligands. One prominent method is a site-directed mutagenesis of existing toxins to change the selectivity or/and affinity to the selected receptor, which has shown positive results.This article is part of the Special Issue entitled ‘Channelopathies.’
Neuropharmacology – Elsevier
Published: Apr 1, 2018
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 12 million articles from more than
10,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Read as many articles as you need. Full articles with original layout, charts and figures. Read online, from anywhere.
Keep up with your field with Personalized Recommendations and Follow Journals to get automatic updates.
It’s easy to organize your research with our built-in tools.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera
Read and print from thousands of top scholarly journals.
Bookmark this article. You can see your Bookmarks on your DeepDyve Library.