Tourism Management 28 (2007) 1212–1223
An investigation of the moderating effects of organizational
commitment on the relationships between work–family conﬂict
and job satisfaction among hospitality employees in India
, Xinyuan Zhao
School of Hospitality Management, The Pennsylvania State University, 201 Mateer Building, University Park, PA 16802, USA
School of Hospitality and Tourism Management, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, PR China
Received 21 March 2006; accepted 25 September 2006
The present study examined the relationships among work–family conﬂict (WFC), organizational commitment (OC) and job
satisfaction (JS) in a hotel setting. Responding to calls in the literature to explore organizational constructs in international settings, data
were collected from the employees of a large independently owned and operated hotel in India. Hierarchical linear regression analyses
demonstrated that one of two sub dimensions of WFC, namely, family related roles interfering with work related roles (FIW) was
negatively associated with JS. Both direct and moderating relationships of three sub dimensions of OC were investigated and it was
found that the affective component of OC has stronger direct effects on JS than normative OC; continuance commitment had no effect.
The study also revealed that employees’ affective commitment moderates the effects of FIW on JS. The article concludes with
implications for hospitality managers and future research directions.
r 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Work–family conﬂict; Organizational commitment; Job satisfaction; International
It is a commonly held belief, especially among hospitality
industry professionals, that work and family are two
independent life domains. Kanter (1977) labels this belief
the ‘myth of separate worlds.’ The separate world myth has
since been modiﬁed through extensive research which has
demonstrated that the two worlds are not independent and
that the relationship between work and family is highly
interdependent and dynamic (Huang, Hammer, Neal, &
Perrin, 2004). Factors in the work world affect family life
and vice versa (for example, Boyar, Maertz, Pearson, &
Keough, 2003). Studies have also identiﬁed various
antecedents and outcomes of such intersections between
work and family roles (for example, Allen, Herst, Bruck, &
Sutton, 2000; Frone, Russell, & Cooper, 1992a).
Work–family conﬂict (WFC) results when engaging in
one role (for example, as a parent) interferes with engaging
in another role (for example, as an employee) (Greenhaus
& Beutell, 1985). Research in WFC has typically examined
the conﬂicts due to an interaction between the two roles. As
such research has investigated various factors (for example
marital status, child-care responsibilities, and work stress)
in each sphere contributing to WFC (Boyar et al., 2003).
However, Hammer, Bauer, and Grandey (2003) argue that
although WFC depends to a great degree on interactions
with supervisors and others in the immediate environment
of an individual (whether at work or at home), existing
research fails to consider this larger context and its effects
on WFC. Further, researchers (Luk & Shaffer, 2005;
Poelmans et al., 2003) point out that a shortcoming of
existing research is that much of it has been done in the US
and other western countries; very little work has been
carried out in other regions of the world.
The US hospitality industry is well-established globally.
Many key hotel industry players are expanding rapidly in
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