During the present study, we aimed to provide a first look at the amino acid composition of the early stages of cephalopods and follow possible effects of certain dietary treatments. Amino acid profiles of cuttlefish Sepia officinalis , squid Loligo vulgaris and octopus, Octopus vulgaris hatchlings and wild juveniles of L. vulgaris and O. vulgaris were analysed. Cephalopod hatchlings showed high fractions of non-protein nitrogen (NPN), from 25% to 38% of the dry weight. Lysine, leucine and arginine represented half of the total content of essential amino acids (EAA), and glutamate and aspartate represented also nearly half of the non-essential amino acids (NEAA). In O. vulgaris , a general tendency for a decrease in the level of EAA from mature ovary and eggs to hatchlings was observed. Hatchlings after 4 days of fasting lost 28% of their dry weight and the level of EAA and NEAA decreased in both the total content and free forms. Free proline after 2 days of fasting and free tyrosine at 4 days of fasting were not detected. Comparison of the total EAA profiles of preys showed few differences between enriched Artemia nauplii and hatching crab zoeae ( Pagurus prideaux and Maja squinado ). The enriched Artemia nauplii EAA profiles showed no differences with the EAA profiles of O. vulgaris paralarvae during first 10 days of culture, except for histidine. Present results confirm the positive capacity for amino acid uptake from seawater by early stages of cephalopods. In the three species analysed, radiolabelled phenylalanine was incorporated in inverse relation to body size. After 10 days of culture, O. vulgaris paralarvae showed a tendency to increase the levels of total and free amino acids in the groups receiving a daily amino acids solution. At 20 days of age, the O. vulgaris cultures that received the amino acids solution had survivals that on average were three times that of the control group. However, the supposed beneficial effects of the amino acids solution remained unclear, as the dry weight of these paralarvae was equal or lower to that of paralarvae from the control group. In wild O. vulgaris juveniles, the percentage of protein and total amino acids increased with the dry weight of the individuals. These juvenile biochemical changes were associated with strong morphometric changes in body proportions after settlement with the development of the muscular, protein-rich arm crown.
Aquaculture – Elsevier
Published: Dec 20, 2004
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