Alprazolam, diazepam, yohimbine, clonidine: In vivo CA 1 , hippocampal norepinephrine and serotonin release profiles under chloral hydrate anesthesia

Alprazolam, diazepam, yohimbine, clonidine: In vivo CA 1 , hippocampal norepinephrine and... 1. 1. Although the GABA-A receptor complex has been the main focus of anti-anxiety therapy, the neural interaction in the septohippocampal circuit between GABA-A and the neurotransmitter, 5-HT, compels a study of the monoamine, 5-HT, in anxiety as well. 2. 2. Neurochemistry for anxiety is also intimately involved with the nEurotransmitter, Ne. Indeed, 5-HT is a component of the dorsal ascending noradrenergic bundle and both neurotransmitters, NE and 5-HT, have been implicated in clinical depression. 3. 3. In vivo microvoltammetric studies were performed using miniature carbon based sensors to detect NE release and concurrent 5-HT release, with 2 separate neural electrochemical signals, within CA 1 region of hippocampus, in the chloral hydrate anesthetized rat. 4. 4. Time course studies showed that both the triazolobenzodiazepine (TBZD), alprazolam, and the benzodiazepine (BZD), diazepam, decreased hippocampal NE release. 5. 5. The in vivo and online neurochemical profile of hippocampal 5-HT release for alprazolam differed from that of Diazepam I.e. alprazolam increased hippocampal 5-HT release, whereas diazepam decreased hippocampal 5-HT release. 6. 6. Time course studies showed that the a 2 -adrenergic antagonist, yohimbine, an anxiogenic agent, increased both NE and 5-HT release in CA 1 region of hippocampus; the a 2 -adrenergic agonist, clonidine, decreased NE release and increased 5-HT release in the same region. 7. 7. Neither the profile for the TBZD, alprazolam, nor that of the BZD, diazepam, mimicked the neurochemical profile for the anxiogenic agent, yohimbine; the neurochemical profile for the TBZD, alprazolam, was similar to that of the a 2 -adrenergic agonist, clonidine. 8. 8. Interestingly, alprazolam's hippocampal 5-HT/NE interaction is similar to clonidine's 5-HT/NE action at a 2 -adrenergic autoreceptors, resulting in enhanced 5-HT release. 9. 9. Enhanced 5-HT release in hippocampus, exhibited by the atypical TBZD, alprazolam, and not by the typical BZD, diazepam, may be an underlying mechanism for the antidepressant activity exhibited by alprazolam. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry Elsevier

Alprazolam, diazepam, yohimbine, clonidine: In vivo CA 1 , hippocampal norepinephrine and serotonin release profiles under chloral hydrate anesthesia

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Publisher
Elsevier
Copyright
Copyright © 1997 Elsevier Ltd
ISSN
0278-5846
eISSN
1878-4216
DOI
10.1016/S0278-5846(97)00103-6
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

1. 1. Although the GABA-A receptor complex has been the main focus of anti-anxiety therapy, the neural interaction in the septohippocampal circuit between GABA-A and the neurotransmitter, 5-HT, compels a study of the monoamine, 5-HT, in anxiety as well. 2. 2. Neurochemistry for anxiety is also intimately involved with the nEurotransmitter, Ne. Indeed, 5-HT is a component of the dorsal ascending noradrenergic bundle and both neurotransmitters, NE and 5-HT, have been implicated in clinical depression. 3. 3. In vivo microvoltammetric studies were performed using miniature carbon based sensors to detect NE release and concurrent 5-HT release, with 2 separate neural electrochemical signals, within CA 1 region of hippocampus, in the chloral hydrate anesthetized rat. 4. 4. Time course studies showed that both the triazolobenzodiazepine (TBZD), alprazolam, and the benzodiazepine (BZD), diazepam, decreased hippocampal NE release. 5. 5. The in vivo and online neurochemical profile of hippocampal 5-HT release for alprazolam differed from that of Diazepam I.e. alprazolam increased hippocampal 5-HT release, whereas diazepam decreased hippocampal 5-HT release. 6. 6. Time course studies showed that the a 2 -adrenergic antagonist, yohimbine, an anxiogenic agent, increased both NE and 5-HT release in CA 1 region of hippocampus; the a 2 -adrenergic agonist, clonidine, decreased NE release and increased 5-HT release in the same region. 7. 7. Neither the profile for the TBZD, alprazolam, nor that of the BZD, diazepam, mimicked the neurochemical profile for the anxiogenic agent, yohimbine; the neurochemical profile for the TBZD, alprazolam, was similar to that of the a 2 -adrenergic agonist, clonidine. 8. 8. Interestingly, alprazolam's hippocampal 5-HT/NE interaction is similar to clonidine's 5-HT/NE action at a 2 -adrenergic autoreceptors, resulting in enhanced 5-HT release. 9. 9. Enhanced 5-HT release in hippocampus, exhibited by the atypical TBZD, alprazolam, and not by the typical BZD, diazepam, may be an underlying mechanism for the antidepressant activity exhibited by alprazolam.

Journal

Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological PsychiatryElsevier

Published: Oct 1, 1997

References

  • State-of-the-Art Microelectrodes for In Vivo Voltammetry
    Broderick, P.A
  • Studies on the Role of a 2 -Adrenoceptors in the Control of Synaptosomal ( 3 H)5-Hydroxytryptamine Release: Effects of Antidepressant drugs
    Ellison, D.W; Campbell, I.C
  • 5-HT 1A Agonists Modulate Mouse Antipredator Defensive Behavior Differently from the 5-HT 2A Antagonist Pirenperone
    Griebel, G; Blanchard, D.C; Jung, A; Masuda, C.K; Blanchard, R.J
  • Structure and Function of the Brain Serotonin System
    Jacobs, B.L; Azmitia, E.C
  • Vigilance Impairment after a Single Dose of Benzodiazepine
    Kozena, L; Frantik, E; Horvath, M
  • Precipitated Withdrawal in Squirrel Monkeys After Repeated Daily Oral Administration of Alprazolam, Diazepam, Flunitrazepam or Oxazepam
    Martin, J.R; Moreau, J.L; Jenck, F
  • Changing Concepts of the Biochemical Action of the Anxioselective Drug Buspirone
    Taylor, D.P; Allen, L.E; Becker, J.A; Crane, M; Hyslop, D.K; Riblet, L.A
  • Comparison of Acute and Chronic Treatment of Various Serotonergic Agents with Those of Diazepam and Idazoxan in the Rat Elevated X-Maze
    Wright, I.K; Heaton, M; Upton, N; Marsden, C.A

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