Adaptation to metabolic dysfunction during aging: Making the best of a bad situation

Adaptation to metabolic dysfunction during aging: Making the best of a bad situation Mitochondria play a central role in energy metabolism in the process of oxidative phosphorylation. As importantly, they are key in several anabolic processes, including amino acid biosynthesis, nucleotide biosynthesis, heme biosynthesis, and the formation of iron‑sulfur clusters. Mitochondria are also engaged in waste removal in the urea cycle. Their activity can lead to the formation of reactive oxygen species which have damaging effects in the cell. These organelles are dynamic, undergoing cycles of fission and fusion which can be coupled to their removal by mitophagy. In addition to these widely recognized processes, mitochondria communicate with other subcellular compartments. Various components of mitochondrial complexes are encoded by either the nuclear or the mitochondrial genome necessitating coordination between these two organelles. This article reviews another form of communication between the mitochondria and the nucleus, in which the dysfunction of the former triggers changes in the expression of nuclear genes to compensate for it. The most extensively studied of these signaling pathways is the retrograde response whose effectors and downstream targets have been characterized. This response extends yeast replicative lifespan by adapting the organism to the mitochondrial dysfunction. Similar responses have been found in several other organisms, including mammals. Declining health and function during human aging incurs energetic costs. This compensation plays out differently in males and females, and variation in nuclear genes whose products affect mitochondrial function influences the outcome. Thus, the theme of mitochondria-nucleus communication as an adaptive response during aging appears very widespread. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Experimental Gerontology Elsevier

Adaptation to metabolic dysfunction during aging: Making the best of a bad situation

Loading next page...
 
/lp/elsevier/adaptation-to-metabolic-dysfunction-during-aging-making-the-best-of-a-U7AdIuPCEE
Publisher
Elsevier
Copyright
Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc.
ISSN
0531-5565
eISSN
1873-6815
D.O.I.
10.1016/j.exger.2017.07.013
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Mitochondria play a central role in energy metabolism in the process of oxidative phosphorylation. As importantly, they are key in several anabolic processes, including amino acid biosynthesis, nucleotide biosynthesis, heme biosynthesis, and the formation of iron‑sulfur clusters. Mitochondria are also engaged in waste removal in the urea cycle. Their activity can lead to the formation of reactive oxygen species which have damaging effects in the cell. These organelles are dynamic, undergoing cycles of fission and fusion which can be coupled to their removal by mitophagy. In addition to these widely recognized processes, mitochondria communicate with other subcellular compartments. Various components of mitochondrial complexes are encoded by either the nuclear or the mitochondrial genome necessitating coordination between these two organelles. This article reviews another form of communication between the mitochondria and the nucleus, in which the dysfunction of the former triggers changes in the expression of nuclear genes to compensate for it. The most extensively studied of these signaling pathways is the retrograde response whose effectors and downstream targets have been characterized. This response extends yeast replicative lifespan by adapting the organism to the mitochondrial dysfunction. Similar responses have been found in several other organisms, including mammals. Declining health and function during human aging incurs energetic costs. This compensation plays out differently in males and females, and variation in nuclear genes whose products affect mitochondrial function influences the outcome. Thus, the theme of mitochondria-nucleus communication as an adaptive response during aging appears very widespread.

Journal

Experimental GerontologyElsevier

Published: Jul 1, 2018

References

You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.


DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $49/month

Explore the DeepDyve Library

Search

Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly

Organize

Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.

Access

Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

DeepDyve

Freelancer

DeepDyve

Pro

Price

FREE

$49/month
$360/year

Save searches from
Google Scholar,
PubMed

Create lists to
organize your research

Export lists, citations

Read DeepDyve articles

Abstract access only

Unlimited access to over
18 million full-text articles

Print

20 pages / month

PDF Discount

20% off