1 Introduction</h5> There're almost 26 countries that lack access to pure water resources to sustain agricultural and economic developments, and more or less one billion people have been deprived of pure drinking water. Middle East is among those regions where fresh water scarcity has severely affected agricultural capability and public life. Not to mention that the demand for pure water will dramatically increases according to the world statistics forecasting 40–50% population growth over the next 50 years. Thus, conservation and recycling of water for consumption can minimize the problem to some extent  . More or less, 98% of the available water in the world isn't available for direct consumption due to salinity. As water scarcity in many regions of the world is becoming an undeniable fact, efforts have been made to develop technologies for alternative water resources. Thermal desalination processes have been a great option, yet require high capital and operating costs due to installation, maintenance, and energy used. Toward minimizing the overall desalination cost, reverse osmosis membrane filtration (RO) has been widely used and is recently becoming an important alternative source of clean water  . There're more than 15,000 desalination plants around the world providing
Desalination – Elsevier
Published: Dec 1, 2014
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