A role for FGF-8 in the initiation and maintenance of vertebrate limb bud outgrowth

A role for FGF-8 in the initiation and maintenance of vertebrate limb bud outgrowth Background: The outgrowth of the vertebrate limb bud is the result of a reciprocal interaction between the mesenchyme and a specialized region of the ectoderm, the apical ectodermal ridge (AER), which overlies it. Signals emanating from the AER act to maintain the underlying mesenchyme, called the progress zone, in a highly proliferative and undifferentiated state. Removal of the AER results in the cessation of limb bud growth, thus causing limb truncation. The best candidates for this AER-derived signal are members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family, in particular FGF-4, which can maintain limb bud outgrowth following removal of the AER. However, FGF-4 is only expressed after considerable outgrowth has occurred and a well-developed limb bud has formed, and then only in the posterior part of the AER. Likewise, the other FGFs studied to date are not candidates for this activity. Results We report evidence that a recently identified member of this family, FGF-8, is expressed in the ectoderm of the prospective limb territory prior to morphological outgrowth of the limb bud in both mouse and chick. Thereafter, expression is maintained throughout the AER during limb development. We have produced and purified the FGF-8 protein, and shown that it will substitute for the AER in maintaining limb bud outgrowth in mouse embryos from which the AER has been surgically removed. FGF-8 does not, however, maintain expression of the sonic hedgehog gene. Conclusion These results indicate that FGF-8 is an AER-derived mitogen that stimulates limb bud outgrowth. Moreover, our data suggest that FGF-8 may also be an ectodermally derived mitogen that stimulates the onset of limb bud outgrowth (budding) in the absence of a morphological AER, and indicate the possible involvement of FGF-8 in the establishment of the limb field. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Current Biology Elsevier

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Publisher
Elsevier
Copyright
Copyright © 1995 Elsevier Science Ltd
ISSN
0960-9822
DOI
10.1016/S0960-9822(95)00157-6
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Background: The outgrowth of the vertebrate limb bud is the result of a reciprocal interaction between the mesenchyme and a specialized region of the ectoderm, the apical ectodermal ridge (AER), which overlies it. Signals emanating from the AER act to maintain the underlying mesenchyme, called the progress zone, in a highly proliferative and undifferentiated state. Removal of the AER results in the cessation of limb bud growth, thus causing limb truncation. The best candidates for this AER-derived signal are members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family, in particular FGF-4, which can maintain limb bud outgrowth following removal of the AER. However, FGF-4 is only expressed after considerable outgrowth has occurred and a well-developed limb bud has formed, and then only in the posterior part of the AER. Likewise, the other FGFs studied to date are not candidates for this activity. Results We report evidence that a recently identified member of this family, FGF-8, is expressed in the ectoderm of the prospective limb territory prior to morphological outgrowth of the limb bud in both mouse and chick. Thereafter, expression is maintained throughout the AER during limb development. We have produced and purified the FGF-8 protein, and shown that it will substitute for the AER in maintaining limb bud outgrowth in mouse embryos from which the AER has been surgically removed. FGF-8 does not, however, maintain expression of the sonic hedgehog gene. Conclusion These results indicate that FGF-8 is an AER-derived mitogen that stimulates limb bud outgrowth. Moreover, our data suggest that FGF-8 may also be an ectodermally derived mitogen that stimulates the onset of limb bud outgrowth (budding) in the absence of a morphological AER, and indicate the possible involvement of FGF-8 in the establishment of the limb field.

Journal

Current BiologyElsevier

Published: Jul 1, 1995

References

  • Somite subdomains, muscle cell origins and the four muscle regulatory factor proteins
    Smith, TH; Kachinsky, AM; Miller, JB
  • A series of normal stages in the development of the chick embryo
    Hamburger, V; Hamilton, M
  • Distribution of FGF-2 suggests it has a role in chick limb bud growth
    Savage, MP; Hart, CE; Riley, BB; Sasse, J; Olwin, BB; Fallon, JF
  • FGF can induce outgrowth of somatic mesoderm both inside and outside of limb-forming regions
    Mima, T; Ohuchi, H; Noji, S; Mikawa, T

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