The crack-tip-opening angle or displacement (CTOA/CTOD) fracture criterion is one of the oldest fracture criteria applied to fracture of metallic materials with cracks. During the past two decades, the use of elastic–plastic finite-element analyses to simulate fracture of laboratory specimens and structural components using the CTOA criterion has expanded rapidly. But the early applications were restricted to two-dimensional analyses, assuming either plane-stress or plane-strain behavior, which lead to generally non-constant values of CTOA, especially in the early stages of crack extension. Later, the non-constant CTOA values were traced to inappropriate state-of-stress (or constraint) assumptions in the crack-front region and severe crack tunneling in thin-sheet materials. More recently, the CTOA fracture criterion has been used with three-dimensional analyses to study constraint effects, crack tunneling, and the fracture process. The constant CTOA criterion (from crack initiation to failure) has been successfully applied to numerous structural applications, such as aircraft fuselages and pipelines. But why does the “constant CTOA” fracture criterion work so well? This paper reviews the results from several studies, discusses the issues of why CTOA works, and discusses its limitations.
Engineering Fracture Mechanics – Elsevier
Published: Feb 1, 2003
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