This paper reviews the development of clean vehicles, including pure electric vehicles (EVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs), and high energy power batteries, such as nickel metal hydride (Ni-MH), lithium-ion (Li-ion) and proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). The mathematical models and thermal behavior of the batteries are described. Details of various thermal management techniques, especially the PCMs battery thermal management system and the materials thermal conductivity, are discussed and compared. It is concluded that the EVs, HEVs and FCEVs are effective to reduce GHG and pollutants emission and save energy. At stressful and abuse conditions, especially at high discharge rates and at high operating or ambient temperatures, traditional battery thermal energy management systems, such as air and liquid, may be not meeting the requirements. Pulsating heat pipe may be more effective but needs to be well designed. In addition, progress in developing new high temperature material is very difficult. PCM for battery thermal management is a better selection than others. Nevertheless, thermal conductivity of the PCMs such as paraffin is low and some methods are adopted to enhance the heat transfer of the PCMs. The performance and thermo-mechanical behaviors of the improved PCMs in the battery thermal management system need to be investigated experimentally. And the possibility of the heat collection and recycling needs to be discussed in terms of energy saving and efficient.
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews – Elsevier
Published: Dec 1, 2011
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