Nomenclature</h5> Acronyms/abbreviations</h5> AC air conditioning</P>CAS Chemical Abstracts Service</P>C2 command and control</P>CO carbon monoxide</P>DOD U.S. Department of Defense</P>DOE U.S. Department of Energy</P>ECU engine control unit</P>EHR exhaust heat recovery</P>EV electric vehicle</P>HC hydrocarbon</P>HEV hybrid electric vehicle</P>HTF heat transfer fluid</P>kph kilometers per hour (km/h)</P>LPG liquefied petroleum gas</P>PCM phase change material</P>PHEV plug-in hybrid electric vehicle</P>RoHS Restriction of Hazardous Substances</P>SWaP size, weight and power</P>TES thermal energy storage</P>TCU temperature control unit</P>TE thermoelectric</P>TEG thermoelectric generator</P>U.S. United States</P>USABC U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium</P>Symbols</h5> c p specific heat at constant pressure (kJ/kg K)</P>k th thermal conductivity (W/mK)</P>H latent heat (kJ/kg)</P>n formula number</P>T temperature (°C)</P>wt% weight percentage</P>Greek symbols</h5> ρ density (kg/m 3 )</P>Subscripts</h5> M melting</P>f fusion</P>l liquid</P>s solid</P>t transition</P>v volumetric</P>1 Introduction</h5> Fuel economy has long been a dominant design goal for commercial vehicles, but recently issued U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) policy has set increased energy efficiency and fuel economy as immediate priorities for military vehicles as well, putting emphasis on the strategic and operational impact of the military’s overall energy usage  . System level analyses by both the DOD and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have recognized that improving the management of vehicle heat is critical to achieving higher platform efficiency [2,3] . Depending on operating conditions,
Applied Energy – Elsevier
Published: Jan 1, 2014
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