1 Introduction</h5> Foundry sand is a by-product of ferrous and nonferrous metal casting industries, in which sand is used as a molding material. When the sand can no longer be reused, it becomes a hazardous material according to European regulations as quoted by Alonso-Santurde et al.  , since it can contain heavy metals and different pollutants [2,3] . The usual fate of this sand – several MT per year – is to be landfilled after a previous process of solidification/stabilization. Owing to high landfilling costs and environmental concerns, some researchers have reported other management alternatives for these polluted WFS, such as subbases, soils, ceramics, controlled-low-strength materials and concretes [4–8] . In these last two cases, WFS can be used to partially replace normal sand. Different issues related to this last point have been addressed: the effect of WFS on workability and compressive strengths, the freezing-thawing resistance of the concretes and the replacement levels [9–11] . In general, only low replacement levels (below 20%) guarantee acceptable performance in the final concrete  .</P>All the preexisting work shows two common characteristics: on the one hand, ordinary Portland cement (OPC) was used as the binding material; on the other hand,
Construction and Building Materials – Elsevier
Published: Nov 1, 2013
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