1 Introduction</h5> Aircraft structures are designed to retain adequate structural integrity in the presence of major damage. The Aloha Airlines accident in 1988 resulted in much attention being paid to the Multiple Sites Damage (MSD) phenomenon of riveted lap joints in aircraft fuselages ( Swift, 1994 ). MSD was characterized by the simultaneous presence of fatigue cracks in the same structural element, for example, fatigue cracking at multiple rivet locations in lap joints ( FAA, 2010 ). Subsequently, procedures for maintaining the structural integrity of aging aircraft were established. However, there were still several civil and military aircraft failures reported due to the presence of Widespread Fatigue Damage (WFD) ( FAA, 2010 ). In order to maintain the aircraft safety, in 2010, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in US issued its newest rules to prevent catastrophic failure due to WFD throughout the operational life of certain existing transport category airplanes and all those to be certificated in the future ( FAA, 2010 ). These incidents and the FAA requirements call for suitable methods to analyze the behaviors of multiple fatigue cracks in susceptible structural locations.</P>During the past two decades, various methodologies and fracture criterions had been developed to
International Journal of Solids and Structures – Elsevier
Published: Feb 1, 2014
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