Suboptimal outcomes from behavioral weight loss (BWL) treatments are partially attributable to accumulated instances of non-adherence to dietary prescriptions (i.e., dietary lapses). Results identifying negative internal triggers for dietary lapses are inconsistent, potentially due to individual differences that impact how individuals respond to cues. Impulsivity is one factor that likely influences reactivity to internal states. We examined three dimensions of impulsivity (delay discounting, inhibitory control, and negative urgency) as moderators of the relation between affective and physical states and subsequent dietary lapses at the beginning of BWL. Overweight/obese adults (n = 189) completed behavioral and self-reported measures of impulsivity at baseline of BWL and an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) protocol across the first two weeks of treatment to report on affective/physical states and instances of dietary lapses. Results indicated that baseline negative urgency, but not delay discounting or inhibitory control, was positively associated with overall lapse risk. Moderation analyses indicated that poorer inhibitory control strengthened the relation between momentary increases in stress and subsequent dietary lapse, and higher negative urgency strengthened the relation between increases in loneliness and dietary lapse. Negative urgency also moderated the impact of momentary hunger on subsequent dietary lapse risk in an unexpected direction, such that higher negative urgency weakened the relation between hunger and subsequent lapse. Results lend partial and tentative support for the moderating role of impulsivity on the relation between internal states and lapse likelihood. With replication, the development and testing of personalized treatment components based on baseline impulsivity level may be warranted.
Appetite – Elsevier
Published: Aug 1, 2018
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