1 Introduction</h5> Building Performance Simulation (BPS) based design, despite its potential for significant improvements in energy use and indoor environment, has often been undermined by predictions that do not fully represent actual performance [1,2] . Some of these discrepancies can be attributed to deviations from standard weather data  , modeling and simulation simplifications  , occupancy profiles [5–7] , unanticipated control behavior, and material/workmanship related uncertainties. However, the uncertainty introduced by occupant behaviors are undeniable [8,9] .</P>Occupants adapt their environment and personal characteristics to achieve their comfort in ways that are convenient to them rather than being necessarily energy-conserving [2,10,11] . Environmental adjustments may involve decisions such as window/door opening, blind/shade positioning, light switch on/off, carpet/hardwood floor covering, fan on/off, and thermostat up/down. In a given building, occupants may or may not be given control over these actions, but it was reported that occupants' comfort perception is negatively affected if they have less control over their environment [8,12] . CIBSE  and ASHRAE  acknowledge this by including adaptive comfort models for naturally ventilated buildings. Occupants can also adapt their personal characteristics such as adjusting their typical beverage temperatures, location, posture, activity and clothing levels. These personal
Building and Environment – Elsevier
Published: Dec 1, 2013
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