March 2018 ORIGINAL ARTICLES 17. Kelly CR, Ihunnah C, Fischer M, Khoruts A, Surawicz C, Afzali A, et al. 20. Eyre DW, Walker AS, Wyllie D, Dingle KE, Grifﬁths D, Finney J, et al. Fecal microbiota transplant for treatment of Clostridium difﬁcile infec- Predictors of ﬁrst recurrence of Clostridium difﬁcile infection: implica- tion in immunocompromised patients. Am J Gastroenterol 2014;109:1065- tions for initial management. Clin Infect Dis 2012;55(suppl 2):S77-87. 71. 21. Sandora TJ, Fung M, Flaherty K, Helsing L, Scanlon P, Potter-Bynoe G, 18. Hourigan SK, Chirumamilla SR, Ross T, Golub JE, Rabizadeh S, Saeed et al. Epidemiology and risk factors for Clostridium difﬁcile infection in SA, et al. Clostridium difﬁcile carriage and serum antitoxin responses in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2011;30:580-4. children with inﬂammatory bowel disease. Inﬂamm Bowel Dis 22. Baxter M, Ahmad T, Colville A, Sheridan R. Fatal aspiration pneumo- 2013;19:2744-52. nia as a complication of fecal microbiota transplant. Clin Infect Dis 19. Staley C, Kelly CR, Brandt LJ, Khoruts A, Sadowsky MJ. Complete 2015;61:136-7. Microbiota engraftment is not essential for recovery from recurrent Clos- 23. Dominguez SR, Dolan SA, West K, Dantes RB, Epson E, Friedman D, et al. tridium difﬁcile infection following fecal microbiota transplantation. MBio High colonization rate and prolonged shedding of Clostridium difﬁcile 2016;7. in pediatric oncology patients. Clin Infect Dis 2014;59:401-3. Human Cell Culture: An Important Tool for the Diagnosis and Understanding of Disease Priest JH. J Pediatr 1968;72:415-23 ell culture, since its inception in the late 19th century, has facilitated major leaps forward in medical research. In C this article, Priest summarized the signiﬁcance of the human cell culture, especially somatic cells (nongerm cells) as an important tool for diagnosing and understanding human disease and biological processes like aging, differen- tiation, and neoplasia. The article also describes the signiﬁcance of somatic cell culture in chromosome analysis, hy- bridization, and the study of metabolic and enzymatic defects. The basic concepts and approaches to cell culture like enzymatic treatment, trypsinization, optimization of environmental culture, and storing cells in liquid nitrogen hold true to this day. Over the next 50 years, cell culture would become one of the most powerful tools widely used in re- search. HeLa cells, the ﬁrst line of immortal cells, made enormous contributions to medical advancement in areas like the polio vaccine, AIDS, cancer treatments, in vitro fertilization, and gene mapping. Beyond these important impacts, the story of Henrietta Lacks and HeLa cells would become a catalyst for major regulatory changes in collection of human biospecimen cultures, informed consent, privacy and conﬁdentiality in research, familial implications of genetic in- formation, and patient trust in an ethical framework. Cell culture has been indispensable to virology, vaccine produc- tion, drug discovery, pharmacology, toxicology, mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, and cloning and biological landmarks like cloning of Dolly the sheep. More recently, one of the most promising applications of cell culture has been stem cell therapy and tissue engineering, which largely use donor cells expanded in vitro for later use in vivo for repair of damaged tissues. Cell culture–based approaches have been successful in regenerating tissues like skin, cartilage, trachea, and urinary bladder. More successes are anticipated with the application of these techniques in the use of inducible pluripotent stem cells. Furthermore, major innovations like “organs on a chip” and bioprinting 3-dimenstional models of tissues and organs, although still in early-stage development, hold a promising future. Indeed, Dr Priest would be happy to know that her prediction about cell culture contributing to signiﬁcant advancement of medicine hit the bull’s eye and continues to do so. Merline Kocheekkaran V. Benny,MD James Padbury,MD Department of Pediatrics Women & Infants Hospital of Rhode Island Brown University Providence, Rhode Island An Intragastric Fecal Microbiota Transplantation Program for Treatment of Recurrent Clostridium difficile in Children is Efficacious, Safe, and Inexpensive
The Journal of Pediatrics – Elsevier
Published: Mar 1, 2018
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