1 <h5>Introduction</h5> A key challenge in “protecting nature on private lands” (the title of the Lahti Conference 1 The International Workshop, “Protecting Nature on Private Land—From Conflicts to Agreements”, Lahti, Finland, 12–15 June 2002. 1 ) is to find an effective way to integrate biodiversity conservation and economics. While this paper is broadly concerned with the link between regional biodiversity planning and economic instruments (for review of general issues, see McNeely, 1988, 1993 ), it will focus specifically on the important role of biodiversity complementarity. “Complementarity” is an estimate of the gain in biodiversity representation and persistence when an area is added to an existing set of protected-areas (e.g. Margules et al., 1988; Vane-Wright et al., 1991; Faith and Walker, 1996a ). “Added” may imply designating an additional formal protected area, or reflect a change in management of an area, as a consequence of some economic incentive. Because complementarity is to indicate gains in representation/protection of all components of biodiversity, it primarily reflects “option” values of biodiversity ( IUCN, 1980; Faith, 1994 ) rather than other environmental “services” (see Daily et al., 2001 ). 2 We focus on complementarity as the indicator of additional biodiversity values provided by
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