10.1016/j.is.2011.03.003

10.1016/j.is.2011.03.003 1 <h5>Introduction</h5> In the design and production of complex technology, modularity is recognized as a key principle. For example, it has been argued that the computer industry has dramatically increased its rate of innovation by adopting modular design [1] . In contexts such as these, modularity is commonly interpreted as the design principle of having a complex system composed from smaller subsystems that can be managed independently, yet function together as a whole [2] .</P>Modularization is also applied in business process models using subprocesses . Most popular process modeling techniques support this concept, e.g. UML Activity Diagrams [3] , EPCs [4] , BPMN [5] , and YAWL [6] . Various advantages are attributed to the use of subprocesses in process models, in particular when they grow large. At build-time, subprocesses support a modeling style of stepwise task refinement, stimulate reuse of process models, and potentially speed up the (concurrent) development of the overall process model [7,8] . At run-time, i.e. when a process model is enacted by an automated system, subprocesses allow for scaling advantages: Each subprocess, for example, may be executed on a different workflow server [8] . Finally, when a process model is used to facilitate http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png

10.1016/j.is.2011.03.003

Elsevier — Jun 11, 2020

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Abstract

1 <h5>Introduction</h5> In the design and production of complex technology, modularity is recognized as a key principle. For example, it has been argued that the computer industry has dramatically increased its rate of innovation by adopting modular design [1] . In contexts such as these, modularity is commonly interpreted as the design principle of having a complex system composed from smaller subsystems that can be managed independently, yet function together as a whole [2] .</P>Modularization is also applied in business process models using subprocesses . Most popular process modeling techniques support this concept, e.g. UML Activity Diagrams [3] , EPCs [4] , BPMN [5] , and YAWL [6] . Various advantages are attributed to the use of subprocesses in process models, in particular when they grow large. At build-time, subprocesses support a modeling style of stepwise task refinement, stimulate reuse of process models, and potentially speed up the (concurrent) development of the overall process model [7,8] . At run-time, i.e. when a process model is enacted by an automated system, subprocesses allow for scaling advantages: Each subprocess, for example, may be executed on a different workflow server [8] . Finally, when a process model is used to facilitate

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