1 <h5>Introduction</h5> In the design and production of complex technology, modularity is recognized as a key principle. For example, it has been argued that the computer industry has dramatically increased its rate of innovation by adopting modular design  . In contexts such as these, modularity is commonly interpreted as the design principle of having a complex system composed from smaller subsystems that can be managed independently, yet function together as a whole  .</P>Modularization is also applied in business process models using subprocesses . Most popular process modeling techniques support this concept, e.g. UML Activity Diagrams  , EPCs  , BPMN  , and YAWL  . Various advantages are attributed to the use of subprocesses in process models, in particular when they grow large. At build-time, subprocesses support a modeling style of stepwise task refinement, stimulate reuse of process models, and potentially speed up the (concurrent) development of the overall process model [7,8] . At run-time, i.e. when a process model is enacted by an automated system, subprocesses allow for scaling advantages: Each subprocess, for example, may be executed on a different workflow server  . Finally, when a process model is used to facilitate
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