1 <h5>Introduction</h5> Globalization's manifestations are increasingly penetrating the remote human settlements of the world and are profoundly affecting the local use of natural resources in complex ways ( Dietz et al., 2003 ). Remote communities, those lying at the periphery of global market, migration, and technology networks, are increasingly becoming less remote. Here, human impacts are less, and resources are relatively abundant and intact ( Sanderson et al., 2002 ). Biodiversity hotspot countries, those with at least 100,000 ha of hotspots ( Fisher and Christopher, 2007 ), meaning areas with at least 1500 endemic plant species having lost at least 70% of their original habitat extent, have larger and faster growing rural populations, have more emigration, and are less connected in terms of infrastructure and technology than non-hotspot countries ( Table 1 ). These metrics will change with connection. The proximity of remote human settlements to biodiversity hotspots ( Fig. 1 ) suggests that the effects of global connection are of great importance for conservation. Connection to global networks occurs via new roads, rails, ports and increasingly through communication technologies. Much of the extant conservation literature has focused on the direct effects on biodiversity of transportation infrastructure such
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