1 <h5>Introduction</h5> People have been engaged in conservation activities for centuries, i.e., ever since human reasoning began to extend the idea of deferred gratification (“save this fruit to eat tomorrow rather than now”) ( Hunter, 2002 ). Over the last 150 years there have been significant changes in western conservation ethics and values. During the 19th century and first half of the 20th century, the careful use of natural resources was advocated mainly for the need for spiritual satisfaction or for the conservation of limited resources for future human use ( Callicott, 1990 ). More recently, there has been increasing recognition of the need to care for the function and integrity of natural processes and systems, and that all components of nature have intrinsic value ( Callicott, 1990 ). With changing values there have been dramatic increases in organisations, institutions and programs interested in serving a conservation ethic. Some of the earlier prominent ones include the International Union for the Protection of Nature established in 1948 (now the IUCN World Conservation Union), the International Biological Program (1968–1974), and journals like this one (first published in 1968). Such organisations greatly assisted the development of an academic discipline specifically devoted
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