Journal of Environmental Management (2002) 66, 441Â±454 doi:10.1006/jema.2002.0595, available online at http://www.idealibrary.com on P. Christie* Â², A. White Â³ and E. Deguit Â³ Â² School of Marine Affairs, University of Washington, 3707 Brooklyn Ave. NE, Seattle, WA 98105-6715, USA Â³ Coastal Resource Management Project, Tetra Tech EM, Inc., 5th Floor, CIFC Tower, Cebu City, Phillipines 6000 Received 2 January 2001; accepted 10 June 2002 In 1985, in response to declining coral reef conditions, local residents and ofÂ®cials established small, no-take marine sanctuaries on Balicasag and Pamilacan Islands through a community-based process. The implementation of marine protected areas (MPAs) on Balicasag and Pamilacan Islands has been a partial success. As a direct result of protection, living hard coral cover has increased by 119% in Balicasag's sanctuary and by 67% in the non-sanctuary during the period 1984 to 1999, but Balicasag's reef is increasingly affected by breakage from anchors from dive boats and Crownof-thorns starÂ®sh infestations. During the same period, living hard coral cover decreased by 20% in Pamilacan's sanctuary and by 45% in the non-sanctuary from 1984 to 1999. The decrease in living hard coral cover in Pamilacan's sanctuary is most likely a result of the 1998 bleaching event,
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