RESISTANCE AND RESILIENCE OF ALPINE LAKE FAUNA TO FISH INTRODUCTIONS

RESISTANCE AND RESILIENCE OF ALPINE LAKE FAUNA TO FISH INTRODUCTIONS This paper reports on the response by amphibians, benthic macroinvertebrates, and zooplankton in naturally fishless alpine lakes to fish introductions and subsequent fish disappearance. We assessed resistance (the degree to which a system is altered when the environment changes) by comparing faunal distribution and abundance in lakes that have never been stocked with fish vs. the distribution and abundance in lakes that have been stocked and still contain fish. We assessed resilience (the degree and rate of a system's return to its previous configuration once the perturbation is removed) by comparing faunal distribution and abundance in lakes that were stocked at one time but have since reverted to a fishless condition (stocked-now-fishless lakes) vs. the distribution and abundance in lakes that have never been stocked. We quantified recovery rates and trajectories by comparing faunal assemblages of stocked-now-fishless lakes that had been fishless for 5––10, 11––20, and >20 yr. Faunal assemblages in the study lakes had low resistance to fish introductions, but in general showed high resilience. The mountain yellow-legged frog ( Rana muscosa ), conspicuous benthic macroinvertebrates, and large crustacean zooplankton (>1 mm) were dramatically reduced in distribution and abundance by fish introductions but generally recovered to predisturbance levels after fish disappearance. Inconspicuous benthic invertebrate taxa, small crustacean zooplankton (<1 mm), and rotiferan zooplankton (<0.2 mm) were either unaffected by fish or increased in the presence of fish. For both the benthic macroinvertebrate community and the zooplankton community as a whole, fish disappearance was followed by a steady change away from the configuration characteristic of fish-containing lakes and toward that of lakes that had never been stocked. Both communities remained markedly different from those in never-stocked lakes 5––10 yr after fish disappearance and converged on the configuration of never-stocked lakes only 11––20 yr after fish disappearance. Recovery was likely facilitated by the winged adult stages of many benthic macroinvertebrates, resting eggs of zooplankton, and nearby source populations of frogs. However, many frog populations have disappeared since the time that lakes in this study reverted to a fishless condition, and the viability of zooplankton egg banks should decline in fish-containing lakes over time. As a result, faunal resilience may be lower in lakes that revert to a fishless condition today than is suggested by the results of our study. These findings have important implications for the restoration of alpine lake ecosystems. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Ecological Monographs Ecological Society of America

RESISTANCE AND RESILIENCE OF ALPINE LAKE FAUNA TO FISH INTRODUCTIONS

Loading next page...
 
/lp/ecological-society-of-america/resistance-and-resilience-of-alpine-lake-fauna-to-fish-introductions-wb75dNN07N
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

This paper reports on the response by amphibians, benthic macroinvertebrates, and zooplankton in naturally fishless alpine lakes to fish introductions and subsequent fish disappearance. We assessed resistance (the degree to which a system is altered when the environment changes) by comparing faunal distribution and abundance in lakes that have never been stocked with fish vs. the distribution and abundance in lakes that have been stocked and still contain fish. We assessed resilience (the degree and rate of a system's return to its previous configuration once the perturbation is removed) by comparing faunal distribution and abundance in lakes that were stocked at one time but have since reverted to a fishless condition (stocked-now-fishless lakes) vs. the distribution and abundance in lakes that have never been stocked. We quantified recovery rates and trajectories by comparing faunal assemblages of stocked-now-fishless lakes that had been fishless for 5––10, 11––20, and >20 yr. Faunal assemblages in the study lakes had low resistance to fish introductions, but in general showed high resilience. The mountain yellow-legged frog ( Rana muscosa ), conspicuous benthic macroinvertebrates, and large crustacean zooplankton (>1 mm) were dramatically reduced in distribution and abundance by fish introductions but generally recovered to predisturbance levels after fish disappearance. Inconspicuous benthic invertebrate taxa, small crustacean zooplankton (<1 mm), and rotiferan zooplankton (<0.2 mm) were either unaffected by fish or increased in the presence of fish. For both the benthic macroinvertebrate community and the zooplankton community as a whole, fish disappearance was followed by a steady change away from the configuration characteristic of fish-containing lakes and toward that of lakes that had never been stocked. Both communities remained markedly different from those in never-stocked lakes 5––10 yr after fish disappearance and converged on the configuration of never-stocked lakes only 11––20 yr after fish disappearance. Recovery was likely facilitated by the winged adult stages of many benthic macroinvertebrates, resting eggs of zooplankton, and nearby source populations of frogs. However, many frog populations have disappeared since the time that lakes in this study reverted to a fishless condition, and the viability of zooplankton egg banks should decline in fish-containing lakes over time. As a result, faunal resilience may be lower in lakes that revert to a fishless condition today than is suggested by the results of our study. These findings have important implications for the restoration of alpine lake ecosystems.

Journal

Ecological MonographsEcological Society of America

Published: Aug 1, 2001

Keywords: alpine lakes ; amphibians ; exotic species ; fish ; invertebrates ; predation ; recovery ; resilience ; resistance ; Sierra Nevada ; stability ; zooplankton

There are no references for this article.

You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.


DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $49/month

Explore the DeepDyve Library

Search

Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly

Organize

Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.

Access

Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

DeepDyve

Freelancer

DeepDyve

Pro

Price

FREE

$49/month
$360/year

Save searches from
Google Scholar,
PubMed

Create folders to
organize your research

Export folders, citations

Read DeepDyve articles

Abstract access only

Unlimited access to over
18 million full-text articles

Print

20 pages / month

PDF Discount

20% off