Ecological Applications, 13(1) Supplement, 2003, pp. S3âS7 2003 by the Ecological Society of America JANE LUBCHENCO,2 STEPHEN R. PALUMBI,3 STEVEN D. GAINES,4 AND SANDY ANDELMAN5 2Department of Zoology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331-2914 USA Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 USA 4Department of Ecology, Evolution and Marine Biology, University of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106 USA 5National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis, Santa Barbara, California 93101-5504 USA Rapid and radical degradation of the worldâs oceans is triggering increasing calls for more effective approaches to protect, maintain, and restore marine ecosystems (Allison et al. 1998, Murray et al. 1999, NRC 1999a, 2000a). A broad spectrum of land and oceanbased activities, coupled with continued growth of the human population and migration to coastal areas, is driving unanticipated, unprecedented, and complex changes in the chemistry (Committee on Environment and Natural Resources 2000, NRC 2000b, Boesch et al. 2001), physical structure (Lubchenco et al. 1995, Watling and Norse 1998), biology and ecological functioning (Lubchenco et al. 1995, Vitousek et al. 1997, Botsford et al. 1997, Watling and Norse 1998, NRC 1999b, NMFS 1999, FAO 2000, Hutchings 2000, Carlton 2001, Jackson et al.
Ecological Applications – Ecological Society of America
Published: Feb 1, 2003
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