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The "Teachers' Army" and Its Miniature Republican Society: Educators' Traits and School Dynamics in Turkish Pedagogical Prescriptions, 1923-1950

The "Teachers' Army" and Its Miniature Republican Society: Educators' Traits and School Dynamics... the end of the cotton boom.14 In a move not unlike Louis XVI calling the Estates-General to meet (and raise taxes) in 1789, Ismail created a parliamentary body that would serve a similar function in 1866. Within nine years he was forced to sell Egypt’s shares in the Suez Canal Company to the British. The following year, 1876, Egypt was nearly bankrupt, and Ismail allowed Britain and France to control state expenditures through the Public Debt Commission. When he tried to regain control of Egypt’s finances, the country’s European creditors pressured the Ottoman sultan Abdul Hamid II to depose him in favor of his more malleable son Tawfiq (r. 1879-1892). While Ismail’s deposition led to a certain amount of scaling back and school closures, the process he renewed would not evaporate. A class of educated Egyptians that had benefited from the policies of Muhammad Ali and Ismail was now in place in the army and the bureaucracy. 15 Furthermore, over the course of the nineteenth century, a landowning elite had come into existence and sent its sons to the new government schools.16 It was a coalition of these privileged individuals seeking to increase their power, vis à vis http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East Duke University Press

The "Teachers' Army" and Its Miniature Republican Society: Educators' Traits and School Dynamics in Turkish Pedagogical Prescriptions, 1923-1950

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Publisher
Duke University Press
Copyright
Copyright 2001 by Duke University Press
ISSN
1089-201X
eISSN
1548-226X
DOI
10.1215/1089201X-21-1-2-61
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

the end of the cotton boom.14 In a move not unlike Louis XVI calling the Estates-General to meet (and raise taxes) in 1789, Ismail created a parliamentary body that would serve a similar function in 1866. Within nine years he was forced to sell Egypt’s shares in the Suez Canal Company to the British. The following year, 1876, Egypt was nearly bankrupt, and Ismail allowed Britain and France to control state expenditures through the Public Debt Commission. When he tried to regain control of Egypt’s finances, the country’s European creditors pressured the Ottoman sultan Abdul Hamid II to depose him in favor of his more malleable son Tawfiq (r. 1879-1892). While Ismail’s deposition led to a certain amount of scaling back and school closures, the process he renewed would not evaporate. A class of educated Egyptians that had benefited from the policies of Muhammad Ali and Ismail was now in place in the army and the bureaucracy. 15 Furthermore, over the course of the nineteenth century, a landowning elite had come into existence and sent its sons to the new government schools.16 It was a coalition of these privileged individuals seeking to increase their power, vis à vis

Journal

Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle EastDuke University Press

Published: Jan 1, 2001

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